By Dr. Raja Muhammad Khan
The unfortunate event of 9/11 was a major setback to the humanity in the very beginning of 21st century. This event changed the dynamics of international security and traditional pattern of managing the defence and security of nation states. It introduced asymmetry in the warfare and traditional order of security strategies of the nation states. It was also the beginning of a new form of warfare, today called as the 4th Generation warfare. In this form of the warfare, the enemy in most of the cases is undefined and may appear suddenly from anywhere with yet new tactics to harm the nations or group of people. Some strategists even call it the non-kinetic warfare. Under the new security challenges, the threats are global and enemy has a universal approach. Nevertheless, irrespective of the nomenclature, this is a highly dangerous form of warfare, humanity has ever experienced in its entire recorded history.
While the challenges to the global security is a reality, there is a need to ascertain the raison d'être of this entire phenomenon. Has this been the outcome of the globalization or else result of the technological advancement taken place in the recent history of modern warfare? Whereas there are many perceptions and ideas about the globalization, and globalized effects to the international security, this is not the only change the world is facing today. Apart from security, all other fields relating to humanity are equally facing changes in their traditional patterns. In the literary circle, these changes are attributed to the effects of globalization. On one hand the term globalization is considered as the intensification of worldwide social relations that links distant localities in such a way that, local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa, it is also referred as the “de-territorialization of social, political and economic activities, which no longer organized strictly to the borders.”
Apparently, the concept leads towards a new thinking among the strategists, making the national frontiers and borders as irrelevant. According to Glipin, a writer of the globalization, the process is indeed, the “integration of the world-economy.” Nevertheless, scholar like Scholte declares the concept as the “de-territorialization or the growth of supra-territorial relations between people.” There are yet many others like Harvey, who opines globalization as a, “time- space compressions.” Do this all mean that borders of the nation states, a concept developed in 1648, through the Treaty of Westphalia, is now fading away, or else national boundaries have lost significance or there is a demise of the state sovereignty.
While a segment of the scholars is debating the above mentioned concepts, there is a dominant class of the analysts, who believe that the nation states have became more conscious about the security of their national boundaries, following the event of 9/11. This reality can be verified from developments taken place in the field of security following this global incident, which changed the very basis of the international security and economic outlook of the world. The Department of Homeland Security in United States was established following this incident. Most of European counties have strengthened their securities following the incident. China, Russia, India and ASEAN counties have reoriented their national security strategies, following the event of 9/11.
Another challenge of the globalization is the economic interdependence. In today’s globalized world, nation states are more economically dependent on each other; then they were a few years ago. Whereas, the dual effects of this economic interdependence has benefitted the economically well off states, it too have negatively impacted most of the third world nations of the world. Resultantly, the countries of the global north has economically flourished rapidly, whereas, most of the countries of the global south have gone poorer. This has brought another imbalance and discrimination; an effect can be attributed to the process globalization. Indeed, the global economy is based on Capitalism, a system that is apparently based on liberalism. The concept call for a free marketing and openness. The system is gorgeous in its script where it allows everyone to invest and get the benefits accordingly. Nevertheless, its real face remains hidden from the bulk of the humanity. Only more affluent class can get into the system to reap its effects, while it pulls the poor economies to a new low.
Unfortunately, Pakistan is one of the sufferers of the globalized effects to its security and economy both simultaneously. On the security front, it is facing multilateral threats emanating from within as well as from across the frontiers. Domestically, it is negotiating a prolonged conflict, emerged from extremists and terrorists. This class of the violence promoters has the backing from the forces operating from across its borders. This is a very serious challenge; the country is facing currently. There are many forces that in the garb of even being coalition partners are promoting these so-called religious militants. Besides, many regional actors are joining hands with the extra-regional forces, to internally destabilize Pakistan for their vested interests. This indeed, is the most difficult scenario, Pakistan facing recently.
A strong economy is needed to back this unending global fight against terrorism; Pakistan is carrying out at its own soil. Regretfully, there is down fall in the country’s economy over the last few years, making it most difficult to manage its both ends. Furthermore in the absence of a determined and non-conditional financial assistance, combating this menace of terrorism may become further complicated.
What is required at the moment is the national mobilization against the terrorism and militancy, through a an awareness campaign and exposing the forces behind these terrorists with their true motives; which clearly aim to harm the national integrity of Pakistan. After all, if these forces are bent to destabilize Pakistan, why to be so courteous to hide their motives from nation.
Economically, who stops us from progressing, if the element of loyalty with the homeland and nation persists among the decision makers? Let us rebuild the country’s once smashed industry and create opportunities for the employment of youth, constituting 65 percent of the total population. Maintenance of law and order is mandatory for such a step. Besides, we have to end the controversies, recently erupted owing to political, ethnic or any other internal differences. Our affluent class must stop playing at the hands of anti-Pakistan forces, may be operative; domestically, regionally or globally. Let us all together respect and secure this God gifted country, Pakistan; the homeland of 180 million people, the only Muslim nuclear state.
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